Sunday, January 06, 2013

Educational Technology

Educational technology is the study and ethical practice of facilitating learning and improving performance by creating, using, and managing appropriate technological processes and resources. (Teknologi Pembelajaran adalah studi dan etika praktek untuk memfasilitasi pembelajaran dan meningkatkan kinerja melalui penciptaan, penggunaan, dan pengaturan proses dan sumber daya teknologi).


Comission on Instructional Technology, 1970:
A systematic way of designing, implementing, and evaluating the total process of of learning and teaching in terms of specific objectives, based on research in human learning and communication and employing a combination of human and non human resources to bring about more effective instruction.
Suatu cara yang sistematis dalam mendesain, melaksanakan, dan mengevaluasi proses keseluruhan dari belajar dan pembelajaran dalam bentuk tujuan pembelajaran yang spesifik, berdasarkan penelitian dalam teori belajar dan komunikasi pada manusia dan menggunakan kombinasi sumber-sumber belajar dari manusia maupun non-manusia untuk membuat pembelajaran lebih efektif.

AECT (1972):
Educational tehcnology is a field involved in the facilitation of human learning through the systematic identification, development, organization and utilization of full range of learning resources and through the management of these process.
Teknologi pendidikan adalah satu bidang/disiplin dalam memfasilitasi belajar manusia melalui identifikasi, pengembangan, pengeorgnasiasian dan pemanfaatan secara sistematis seluruh sumber belajar dan melalui pengelolaan proses.

Berdasarkan definisi 1994, Teknologi Pembelajaran adalah ; Teori dan praktek dalam desain, pengembangan, pemanfaatan, pengelolaan dan penilaian proses dan sumber untuk belajar. Komponen definisinya adalah : teori dan praktek ; desain, pengembangan, pemanfaatan, pengelolaan, dan penilaian ; proses dan sumber ; untuk keperluan belajar.

By definition, 1994, is the Instructional Technology; Theory and practice in the design, development, utilization, management and evaluation of processes and resources for learning. Component definition is: theory and practice; design, development, utilization, management, and assessment; processes and resources; for learning purposes.

Perbedaan antara kedua definisi ini adalah :
Definisi 1994 Definisi 2004
1. Menekankan pada teori dan praktek Menekankan pada Studi dan etika praktek
2. Pokok kegiatan adalah desain, pengembangan Penciptaan, pengaturan, dan penggunaan
pemanfaatan, pengelolaan, dan penilaian
3. Tujuan untuk keperluan belajar Tujuan memfasilitasi pembelajaran
4. Utilisasi proses & sumber belajar Utilisasi proses & sumber daya teknologi
Untuk poin 1, definisi 2004 sudah lebih spesifik karena menekankan pada studi & etika praktek. Poin 2, definisi 2004 memiliki kekurangan karena tidak mencakup untuk penilaian. Poin 3 sudah berkenaan dengan perubahan paradigma, dimana teknologi pembelajaran hanya memfasilitasi pembelajaran – artinya faktor-faktor lain dianggap sudah ada. Poin 4, definisi 2004 sudah lebih luas karena yang dikelola bukan hanya semata proses dan sumber belajar, tetapi lebih jauh sudah mencakup proses dan sumber daya teknologi.
Secara singkat dapat dikatakan bahwa definisi 2004 sudah mencakup aspek etika dalam profesi , peran sebagai fasilitator, dan pemanfaatan proses dan sumber daya teknologi.

The difference between these two definitions are: Definition Definition 1994 2004
1. Emphasizing on the theory and practice emphasizes the study and ethical practice
2. Principal activity is the development, design creation, management and use ofutilization, management, and assessment
3. The purpose for the purposes of facilitating the learning objective learning4. Process of learning resource utilization and resource utilization process & technology.
For point 1, 2004 are more specific definition because it emphasizes the study and ethical practice. Point 2, the definition of 2004 has shortcomings because it does not cover for the assessment. Point 3 is regarding the change of paradigm, where learning technology only facilitates learning - meaning other factors are considered already exist. Points 4, 2004 the definition was broader because of the run is not just simply a process and learning resources, but rather far have covered processes and technology resources.In short it can be said that the definition of 2004 already includes aspects of ethics in the profession, the role of the facilitator, and the use of process and technology resources.


Kawasan teknologi pendidikan dapat meliputi kegiatan analisis, desain, pengembangan, pemanfaatan,pengelolaan, implementasi dan evaluasi baik proses-proses maupun sumber-sumber belajar.

Regions educational technology can include activities analysis, design, development, utilization, management, implementation and evaluation processes and learning resources.


Teknologi Pendidikan adalah proses kompleks yang terintegrasi meliputi orang, prosedur, gagasan, sarana dan organisasi untuk menganalisis masalah dan merancang, melaksanakan, menilai dan mengelola pemecahan masalah dalam segala aspek belajar manusia.

Educational technology is a complex process that includes an integrated, procedures, ideas, tools and organizations to analyze problems and design, implement, assess and manage the problem solving in all aspects of human learning

Educational Technology

- systematic way of designing, implementing, and evaluating the total process of of learning and teaching in terms of specific objectives, based on research in human learning and communication and employing a combination of human and non human resources to bring about more effective instruction (Commission on Instructional Technology, 1970)‏


- educational technology is a field involved in the facilitation of human learning through the systematic identification, development, organization and utilization of full range of learning resources and through the management of these process (AECT, 1972)‏


-instructional technology is the research in and application of behavioral science and learning theories and the use of a systems approach to analyze, design, develop, implement, evaluate and manage the use of technology to assist in the solving of learning or performance problems. The term instructional technology is often used interchangeably with the term educational technology, but instructional technology often has more emphasis on the scientific and systems approach of instructional problem solving while educational technology focuses more on the craft or art of using technology to support learning


-a systematic way of designing, implementing and evaluating the total process of learning and teaching in terms of specific objectives, based on research in human learning and communication and employing a combination of human and non-human resources to bring about more effective instruction” (U.S. Commission on Instructional Technology definition).


-Educational technology is the study and ethical practice of facilitating learning and improving performance by creating, using, and managing appropriate technological processes and resources (AECT, 2004)



1. DESIGN
Design is the creation of a plan or convention for the construction of an object or a system (as in architectural blueprints, engineering drawing, business process, circuit diagrams and sewing patterns).

2. ANALYSIS
Analysis is the process of breaking a complex topic or substance into smaller parts to gain a better understanding of it.


3. DEVELOPMENT

Development is a complex issue, with many different and sometimes contentious definitions.


4. UTILIZATION

Utilization is the primary method by which asset performance is measured and business success determined.


5. MANAGEMENT

Management process is a process of planning and controlling the performance or execution of any type of activity


6. IMPLEMENTATION

Implementation is the realization of an application, or execution of a plan, idea, model, design, specification, standard, algorithm, or policy.


7. EVALUATION

Evaluation is a systematic determination of a subject's merit, worth and significance, using criteria governed by a set of standards


8. INSTRUCTIONAL TECHNOLOGY
Design, development, use, management and evaluation of process and resources for learning.
Instructional technology aims to promote the application of validated, practical procedures in the design and delivery of instruction. It is often defined either in terms of media and other technology used (e.g. audiovisual media and equipment and computers), or in terms of a systematic process which encompasses instructional design, development, delivery and evaluation.


9. DIFFUSION OF INNOVATIONS
Diffusion of Innovations is a theory that seeks to explain how, why, and at what rate new ideas and technology spread through cultures.

10. INTEGRATED TECHNOLOGY
Technology Integration is the use of technology tools[citation needed] in general content areas in education in order to allow students to apply computer and technology skills to learning and problem-solving. 

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